Janet Yellen ประธานเฟดหญิงคนแรกในประวัติศาสตร์ 100 ปี

janet-yellen

นางเยลเลนเข้าพิธีสาบานตนเพื่อรับตำแหน่งประธานเฟดคนใหม่ ต่อจาก นายเบน เบอร์นันกี ประธานคนก่อน ที่ครบวาระการดำรงตำแหน่ง 2 สมัย รวม 8 ปี ที่สำนักงานใหญ่ของเฟดในกรุงวอชิงตันอย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว โดยมีนายแดเนียล ทารูลโย ผู้ว่าการเฟด เป็นผู้นำกล่าวคำสัตย์ปฏิญาณ

นางเยลเลน กลายเป็นประธานเฟดหญิงคนแรกในประวัติศาสตร์ 100 ปี ขององค์กร หลังจากเธอทำงานอยู่ในคณะกรรมการบริหารเฟดมานานกว่า 14 ปี จนประธานาธิบดีบารัก โอบามา เสนอชื่อเธอให้เป็นประธานเฟดคนใหม่เมื่อวันที่ 9 ตุลาคมปีที่แล้ว และได้รับการอนุมัติจากวุฒิสภาให้เธอดำรงตำแหน่งดังกล่าวเป็นเวลา 4 ปี

การเข้ารับตำแหน่งของนางเยลเลน ยังเกิดขึ้นในช่วงที่เฟดกำลังมีการเดินหน้าปรับลดการเข้าซื้อพันธบัตรในตลาด ตามมาตรการผ่อนคลายเชิงปริมาณ หรือคิวอี ในช่วงเดือนมกราคม ก็เพิ่งลดลงการเข้าซื้อจำนวน 10,000 ล้านดอลลาร์

นางเยลเลนยังถูกจับตามองอย่างใกล้ชิด ในเรื่องนโยบายอัตราว่างงาน ซึ่งปัจจุบัน สหรัฐมีอัตราว่างงานอยู่ที่ 6.7% ใกล้กับระดับเป้าหมายของเฟดที่ 6.5% ซึ่งนักวิเคราะห์เชื่อว่า เรื่องนี้่จะเป็นเรื่องที่นางเยลเลนพูดถึง ระหว่างการชี้แจงต่อสภาคองเกรส

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Janet Louise Yellen

(born August 13, 1946) is an American economist. She is the Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, previously serving as Vice Chair from 2010 to 2014.

Previously, she was President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers under President Bill Clinton, and Professor Emerita at the University of California, BerkeleyHaas School of Business. On January 6, 2014, the United States Senate confirmed Yellen’s nomination to be Chair of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. Yellen was sworn in on February 3, 2014, making her the first woman to hold the position.

Early life and education

Yellen was born to a Jewish family in BrooklynNew York, the daughter of Anna (née Blumenthal) and Julius Yellen, a physician. She graduated from Fort Hamilton High School in theBay Ridge section of Brooklyn. She graduated summa cum laude from Pembroke College (Brown University) with a degree in economics in 1967, and received her Ph.D. in economics fromYale University in 1971 for a thesis titled Employment, output and capital accumulation in an open economy: a disequilibrium approach under the supervision of James Tobin and Joseph Stiglitz.

Yellen is married to George Akerlof, a Nobel prize-winning economist and professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. Her son, Robert Akerlof, teaches Economics at theUniversity of Warwick.

Career

Yellen was an assistant professor at Harvard in 1971–76 and an economist with the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 1977–78.[9] Beginning in 1980, Yellen has been conducting research at the Haas School and teaching macroeconomics to full-time and part-time MBA and undergraduate students. She is now a Professor Emerita at the University of California, Berkeley‘s Haas School of Business, where she was named Eugene E. and Catherine M. Trefethen Professor of Business and Professor of Economics. Twice she has been awarded the Haas School’s outstanding teaching award.

Yellen served as Chair of President Bill Clinton‘s Council of Economic Advisers from February 13, 1997[10] to 1999, and was appointed as a member of the Federal Reserve System‘s Board of Governors from 1994 to 1997. She has taught at Harvard University and at the London School of Economics. Yellen serves as president of the Western Economic Association Internationaland is a former vice president of the American Economic Association. She was a fellow of the Yale Corporation.

From June 14, 2004, until 2010, Yellen was the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. She was a voting member of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) in 2009. Following her appointment to the Federal Reserve in 2004, she spoke publicly, and in meetings of the Fed’s monetary policy committee, about her concern about the potential consequences of the boom in housing prices. However, Yellen did not lead the San Francisco Fed to “move to check [the] increasingly indiscriminate lending” of Countrywide Financial, the largest lender in the U.S.[11]

In a 2005 speech in San Francisco, Yellen argued against deflating the housing bubble because “arguments against trying to deflate a bubble outweigh those in favor of it” and predicted that the housing bubble “could be large enough to feel like a good-sized bump in the road, but the economy would likely be able to absorb the shock.”[12] In 2010, Yellen told the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission that she and other San Francisco Fed officials looked for guidance from Washington because “she had not explored the San Francisco Fed’s ability to act unilaterally,” according to the New York Times.[11] Yellen conceded her previous misjudgment of the housing crisis to the Commission: “I guess I thought that similar to the collapse of the stock market around the tech bubble, that most likely the economy could withstand [the housing collapse] and the Fed could move to support the economy the way it had after the tech bubblecollapsed.”[13]

In July 2009, Yellen was mentioned as a potential successor to Ben Bernanke as chair of the Federal Reserve System, before he was renominated by Barack Obama.[14][15]

Vice-chair

Yellen sworn in by Fed ChairmanBen Bernanke in October 2010

On April 28, 2010, President Obama nominated Yellen to succeed Donald Kohn as vice-chair of the Federal Reserve System.[16] In July, the Senate Banking Committee voted 17 to 6 to confirm her, though the top Republican on the panel, Senator Richard C. Shelby of Alabama, voted no, saying he believed Yellen had an “inflationary bias”. At the same time, on the heels of related testimony by Fed chairman Bernanke, FOMC voting member James B. Bullard of the St. Louis Fed made a statement that the U.S. economy was “at risk of becoming ‘enmeshed in a Japanese-style deflationary outcome within the next several years’”.

Bullard’s statement was interpreted as a possible shift within the FOMC balance between inflation hawks and doves. Yellen’s pending confirmation, along with those of Peter A. Diamond and Sarah Bloom Raskin to fill vacancies, was seen as possibly furthering such a shift in the FOMC. All three nominations were seen as “on track to be confirmed by the Senate”.[17]

On October 4, 2010, Yellen was sworn in for a 4-year term ending October 4, 2014. Yellen simultaneously began a 14-year term as a member of the Federal Reserve Board that will expire on January 31, 2024.[18]

Chair of the Federal Reserve

On October 9, 2013, Yellen was officially nominated to replace Bernanke as head of the Federal Reserve. During the nomination hearings held on November 14, 2013, Yellen defended the more than $3 trillion in stimulus funds that the Fed has been injecting into the U.S. economy, which continue to grow at a rate of $85 billion a month.[19] Additionally, Yellen testified that U.S. monetary policy is to revert towards more traditional monetary policy once the economy is back to normal.[20]

On December 20, 2013, the U.S. Senate voted 59–34 for cloture on Yellen’s nomination.[21] On January 6, 2014, she was confirmed as Chair of the Federal Reserve by a vote of 56–26, the narrowest margin ever for the position.[22] In addition to being the first woman to hold the position, Yellen is also the first Democratic nominee to run the Fed since Paul Volcker became chairman in 1979.[23] After being elected by the Federal Open Market Committee as its chair on 30 January, 2014, she took office on February 3.[24] [25]

Philosophy

Yellen is considered by many on Wall Street to be a “dove” (more concerned with unemployment than with inflation) and as such to be less likely to advocate Federal Reserve interest rate hikes, as compared, for example, to William Poole (former St. Louis Fed president) a “hawk” (see definitions under Inflation).[26] However, some predict Yellen could act more as a hawk if economic circumstances dictate.[27]

Yellen is a Keynesian economist and believes in the modern version of the Phillips curve, which, in its original, pre-1970s form, stated a simple inverse relationship between unemployment and inflation. In her 2010 nomination hearing for Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Yellen said, “The modern version of the Phillips curve model—relating movements in inflation to the degree of slack in the economy—has solid theoretical and empirical support.”[28]

In a 1995 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee while serving on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Yellen stated that occasionally letting inflation rise could be a “wise and humane policy” if it increases output. At the same meeting she also claimed that each percentage point reduction in inflation results in a 4.4 percent loss of Gross Domestic Product.[29]

Honors and awards

Yellen received the Wilbur Cross Medal from Yale in 1997, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Brown in 1998, and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Bard College in 2000. In October 2013, it was announced that she will receive an Honorary Doctorate from the London School of Economics in July 2014, making her and her husband “the first wife and husband team to hold honorary doctorates from the School”.[30]

In October 2010, she received the Adam Smith Award from the National Association for Business Economics (NABE).[31]

In 2012, she was elected Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association.

In September 2012, she was included in the 50 Most Influential list of Bloomberg Markets magazine.

Positions held

  • 2014–present Chair, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System
  • 2010–2013 Vice Chair, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System
  • 2004–2010 President and CEO, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
  • 1997–1999 Chair, President’s Council of Economic Advisers
  • 1994–1997 Member, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
  • 1985–present Professor, Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley
  • 1980–1985 Associate Professor, Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley
  • 1978–1980 Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science
  • 1977–1978 Economist, Division of International Finance, Trade and Financial Studies Section, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
  • 1971–1976 Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Harvard University
  • 1974 Research Fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

External service and assignments

  • President and CEO, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
  • Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2001
  • Vice President, Western Economics Association, 2001
  • Fellow, Yale Corporation 2000–
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences Panel on Ensuring the Best Presidential Science and Technology Appointments, 2000
  • Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999–
  • Advisory Board, Center for International Political Economy, 1999–
  • Advisory Board, Brookings Panel on Economic Activity, 1999
  • Chair: Economic Policy Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1997–1999
  • President’s Interagency Committee on Women’s Business Enterprise (1997)
  • Member and adviser: Brookings Panel on Economic Activity (senior advisor); Advisor Panel in Economics, National Science Foundation;
  • Adviser: Congressional Budget Office
  • Research fellow: Yale University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Trustee of the Economists for Peace and Security

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